Chronology of Events
History of Microcomputers
1981-1983 Business Takes Over
Osborne, IBM, Compaq, Lotus 1-2-3, MultiMate, Dbase II
Radio Shack ceases production of the TRS-80 Model I, and recalls units
from the US market, due to failure to meet new FCC radio-frequency interference
regulations. [255.202] [258.208] (1980 NOV [268.188])
Osborne Computer Corporation is incorporated. [266.263]
The International Winter Consumer Electronics Show is held in Las Vegas,
Casio demonstrates the FX-9000P, with a 5 inch CRT, keyboard, keypad, removable
memory modules, and 256x128 graphics. [267.53]
Commodore announces the VIC-20, with full-size 61-key plus four function
key keyboard, 5KB RAM expandable to 32KB, 6502A CPU, 22 character by 23
line text display, and color graphics, for US$300. During its life, production
peaks at 9,000 units per day. [254.214] [190.81] [267.54]  [275.43]
(1980 JUN )
Steve Wozniak's private plane crashes, leaving him with a temporary loss
of short-term memory, lasting for over a month.  [266.236]
Intel introduces the iAPX432 at the
International Solid State Circuits Conference.
MS-DOS runs for the first time on IBM's
Intel begins shipping evaluation sets
of the iAPX432 microprocessor. Performance is claimed as 2 MIPS.
Curt and Kathy Preston open the Byte Shop in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. [267.138]
Mattel test-markets the keyboard component of the Intellivision in Fresno,
The director of Canada' Radiation Protection Bureau declares that video
display terminals carry no radiation hazard. [558.138]
Sinclair unveils the ZX81, based on the Z80A microprocessor, for under
Mike Markkula takes over as president and chief executive officer at Apple
Computer. Steve Jobs remains as chairman of the board.
Tim Patterson quits Seattle Computer Products, and joins Microsoft.
The sixth West Coast Computer Faire is held, in San Francisco, California.
Adam Osborne, of Osborne Computer Corporation, introduces the Osborne 1
Personal Business Computer at the West Coast Computer Faire. It features
a Z80A CPU, 5-inch display, 64KB RAM, keyboard, keypad, modem, and two
5.25-inch 100KB disk drives for US$1795. Weight: 24 pounds. It also includes
US$1500 worth of software, including CP/M, BASIC, WordStar, and SuperCalc.
Osborne anticipated selling 10,000 in total, but sales quickly reached
10,000 in a single month.  [257.8] [203.22] [273.104] [548.412] (JUL
 [346.99]) (nearly US$2000 worth of software [266.263])
The National Computer Conference is held in Chicago, with attendance of
Xerox unveils the Star 8010, at the
National Computer Conference. Many features that were developed on the
Alto are incorported. At a starting price of US$16-17,000, the computer
is not a commercial success.
Atari announces the 8KB Atari 400 is being discontinued. [273.206]
Microsoft reorganizes into Microsoft
Incorporated, with Bill Gates as President and Chairman, and Paul Allen
as Executive Vice President.
Microsoft persuades IBM to introduce its microcompute with a minimum of
64KB RAM. IBM had planned to only include 16KB. [346.84]
Xerox announces the Xerox
820. During its development, it was code-named The Worm. It uses the Z80
CPU, CP/M, and BASIC. The price with a dual disk drive and display is US$3000.
Microsoft buys all rights to DOS
from Seattle Computer Products, and the name MS-DOS is adopted.
IBM introduces its first desktop computer,
the Datamaster. It uses a 16-bit 8086, and is a dedicated data processing
IBM announces the IBM
5150 PC Personal Computer, featuring a 4.77-MHz Intel
8088 CPU, 64KB RAM, 40KB ROM, one 5.25-inch floppy drive, and PC-DOS 1.0
(Microsoft's MS-DOS), for US$3000.
A fully loaded version with color graphics cost US$6000. The plunge of
IBM into the microcomputer market legitimized
the industry for the rest of the world. This also established the preeminence
of the Intel 8086-family and the Microsoft
MS-DOS operating system.     [202.205] [205.28]
[266.276] [277.14] [288.192] [346.86] [389.28] [415.48] [443.50]
IBM announces the CGA graphics card for
the PC, giving 640x200 resolution with 16 colors.
Quote from Tandy president John Roach, regarding IBM's entry into the microcomputer
field: "I don't think it's that significant". [346.87]
Apple Computer runs a full-page ad in
the Wall Street Journal with a headline that reads "Welcome IBM.
Vector Graphic makes its first public stock offering of US$13 million.
Novell Data Systems hires SuperSet to create software to link computers
together to share a hard drive. [548.432]
Microsoft begins work on a graphical
user interface for MS-DOS, initially called Interface Manager, because
it would effectively hide the interface between programs and devices like
printers and video cards.
Osborne Computer Company has its first US$1 million sales month. [266.263]
Apple Computer introduces its first
hard drive, the 5MB ProFile, for US$3500.
IBM begins shipping the IBM
PC, ahead of schedule, something unheard of in the microcomputer industry.
The Fourth Personal Computer World Show is held, in London England. [278.118]
Sinclair Research and W H Smith sign an agreement for W H Smith to sell
the ZX-81 in its retail stores in England, for a trial 1-year period. [285.93]
Acorn Computer Ltd. introduces the BBC Microcomputer System. It features
a 6502A CPU, up to 48 KB RAM, 73-key keyboard, and 16 color graphics. [278.120]
The ZX81 is introduced to the American market, for US$150. [201.vi]
A senior scientist at Bell Telephone Laboratories declares that video monitors
pose no health hazard due to radiation exposure. [558.138]
Novell Data Systems ships the Novell Data Management Computer, with the
ability to share its hard drive space with other computers through software
comtrol and network cards. [548.432]
Ashton-Tate ships dBASE II, the early industry-standard database program.
 (JAN [346.261])
Hayes Microcomputers Products' employee, Dale Heatherington, develops the
+++ escape sequence for modems.
APF introduces the Imagination Machine II at the 1981 Winter Consumer Electronics
Show. It features a 6800 CPU, 27KB RAM, two 5.25 inch disk drives, built-in
cassette drive, 53-key keyboard, and 32x16 character display caability
for US$1600. [275.38]
Vector Graphic Inc. unveils the first personal computer with a built-in
hard disk drive, for US$7950. [258.208]
Tandy Corporation sues Personal Microcomputers Inc. for copyright infringement
on the design of the TRS-80. [258.208]
At COMDEX, Tecmar introduces 20 add-on peripherals for the IBM
PC, the first such third-party developer.
Texas Instruments announces that it is
getting out of the magnetic bubble memory market.
Apple Computer signs a secret agreement with Apple Corps Limited (the record
company started by the Beatles), allowing Apple Computer to use the "Apple"
name for its business. [548.377]
Apple Computer prohibits mail-order
sales of Apple computers, claiming there is no provision for customer education
NCR and Shugart Associates develop the Shugart Associates system interface
(SASI). [542.114] (developed by Shugart, 1979-81 )
The ANSI X3T9 standards committee adopts SASI as a working document for
an ANSI interface standard. It is finalized in 1986, and named SCSI. [542.114]
(NCR and Shugart request committee be formed; committee X3T9.2 formed in
The US Justice Department throws out the antitrust lawsuit filed against
IBM 13 years ago.
The 1982 Winter Consumer Electronics Show is held in Las Vegas, Nevada.
Commodore introduces the Commodore Ultimax, for US$150. [285.64]
Kazuhiko Nishi, Mocrosoft's representative in Japan, shows Bill Gates a
drawing of a prototype for a portable computer, using a new liquid crystal
display developed by Hitachi. Gates
and Nishi begin designing the detais of the computer, which Kyocera Corporation
in Japan had agreed to manufactur.
Commodore announces the Commodore 64 (6510, 64KB RAM, 20KB ROM with Microsoft
BASIC, custom sound, color graphics, for US$600) for US$595. During 1983,
the price drops to US$200. It becomes the best selling computer of all
time, with estimated sales of 17-22 million units. It is the first personal
computer with an integrated sound synthesizer chip.
Commodore introduces the 16K SuperVIC. [285.66]
Commodore introduces the VIC Modem, a 300 baud cartridge modem for US$110.
Texas Instruments introduces a peripheral
expansion unit for the TI-99/4, for US$250.
Astrovision introduces the ZGrass-32 personal computer add-on to the Astro
Professional Arcade, for US$600. It uses a Z-80 CPU. [285.66]
Toshiba America previews its firest
personal computer, the Model T-100. It uses a Z-80A, a flat panel LCD display,
and supports up to 32KB RAM and 32KB ROM in cartridges.
In the first 10 months of sale, 250,000 Sinclair ZX81 microcomputers have
been delivered. [281.6]
Sharp introduces the Sharp PC-1500 Hand Held Personal Computer. It comes
with 16KB ROM, and 3.5KB RAM. Price for computer is US$300. Price for tiny
color graphics printer that attaches to the side, US$250. [285.67]
Atari begins shipping all Atari 800 units with GTIA graphics chips, allowing
three more graphics modes than previously. [286.200]
Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Model 16. It uses a 16-bit Motorola
MC68000 microprocessor, a Z-80 microprocessor, 8-inch floppy drives, and
optional 8-MB hard drive.
Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Pocket Computer, Model PC-2, for US$280.
It uses a 1.3-MHz 8-bit microprocessor, and has a 26-character display,
with upper and lower case characters. It comes with 16KB ROM, and 2.6KB
RAM, expandable to 16KB. An optional 4-color printer attaches to the side.
Davong Systems Incorporated is formed. [287.11]
Casio introduces the FX-9000P microcomputer. It uses a 2.75-MHz processor,
12KB ROM, 4KB RAM (expandable to 32KB), built-in 32x16 character (256x128
graphics) monochrome monitor, for US$1200. [395.106]
The Tabor company is established, for creating disk drives. [444.74]
the KX-1 desktop computer in Japan.
IBM splits its Personal Computer development
team into three groups: one to work on the PC XT, one to develop the PCjr,
and one to start work on the PC AT.
Compaq Computer Corporation is founded
by Rod Canion, Jim Harris, and Bill Murto, all former senior managers of
Intel introduces the 6-MHz 80286 microprocessor.
It uses a 16-bit data bus, 134,000 transistors (1.5 microns), and offers
protected mode operation. Initial price is US$360 each, in quantities of
100. It can access 16 MB of memory, or 1 GB of virtual memory. Speed is
0.9 MIPS. Later versions operated at 10-MHz (1.5 MIPS), and 12-MHz (2.66
The first IBM PC clone, the MPC, is released
by Columbia Data Products.
Olivetti introduces the M20 microcomputer, with Z8001 processor. [405.60]
Epson America, Inc.
announces the HX-20 (HC-20 in Japan), a notebook-sized computer. It weighs
only 3 pounds, and is reported to run on internal batteries for up to 50
hours. It includes 16KB RAM, 32KB ROM, a full-size keyboard, built-in printer,
and 20x4 character LCD screen.
Cromemco Inc. announces the C-10 personal computer. It uses a 4-MHz Z-80A,
64KB RAM, and 80x25 screen, for US$1000. [289.156]
Wang Labratories Ltd. introduces the Wang Professional Computer, for US$2700.
Commodore Business Machines Inc. introduces the Commodore Max Machine.
It has 16-color 40x25 screen capability, for US$180. [289.162]
Commodore Business Machines introduces the BX256 16-bit multiprocessor
professional microcomputer. It includes 256KB RAM, Intel
8088 for CP/M-86, 6509 CPU, 80-column B/W monitor, built-in dual disk drives,
and 3-voice sound for US$3000.
Commodore Business Machines introduces the B128 microcomputer. It features
128KB RAM, 40KB ROM, 6509 CPU, 5.25-inch floppy drive, 3-voice sound chip,
cartridge slot, and an 80-column green screen, for US$1700. [289.162] [405.543]
Commodore Business Machines introduces the P128 microcomputer. It features
128KB RAM, TV connector, 40x25 16-color display, and 320x200 graphics,
for US$1000. [289.162]
Lobo Drives International introduces the Lobo MAX-80 personal computer.
It features a 5-MHz Z80 processor, 64KB RAM, serial/parallel ports, interfaces
for 5.25-inch and 8-inch floppy drives, hard drive interface, TRS-80 bus
slot, CP/M, optional LDOS for TRS-80 emulation, monochrome graphics, and
keyboard, for US$800-1000. [289.164] [446.390]
Altos Computer Systems announces the ACS8600. [289.164]
Digital Equipment announces the dual-processor
Rainbow 100. It incorporates both Zilog
Z-80 and Intel 8088 microprocessors,
allowing it to run CP/M as well as CP/M-86 or MS-DOS. Prices start at US$3000.
Bill Gates hires James Towne, a manager from Tektronix, as first president
Boston's Computer Museum, devoted to documenting and displaying the evolution
of computer technology, is incorporated.
Timex Computer Corp. begins selling the Timex Sinclair 1000 through over
1000 Timex retail outlets. [288.10]
Apple Computer releases the Apple Dot
Matrix Printer, for US$700. It is a modified C.Itoh printer.
(spring) IBM releases Digital Research's
CP/M-86 for the IBM PC.
(spring) Microsoft ships its Multiplan
spreadsheet program to IBM for testing
and marketing for the IBM PC.
(summer) Microsoft receives its
first Macintosh prototype from Apple, for use in developing software for
(late) General Consumer Electronics introduces the Vectrex, the first home
gaming system with a built-in 9-inch monochrome vector monitor. It uses
a Motorola 68A09 processor. Price: US$200.  [338.82] [446.92]
Matsushita introduces the National Mybrain 3000 microcomputer. It features
an 8088 processor, 96KB RAM, 32KB video RAM, 640x400 graphics, choice of
3-inch, 5.25-inch, and 8-inch floppy drives, and operates MS-DOS and CP/M-86.
Mitsubishi introduces the Multi 16 microcomputer. It features an 8088 processor,
128KB RAM, 640x400 graphics, 300KB 5.25-inch floppy, and CP/M-86. [447.112]
Toshiba introduces the Pasopia 16
(T300 in the United States). It features an 8088 processor, optional 8087
math coprocessor, 192KB RAM, 4KB ROM, MS-DOS, 320KB 5.25-inch floppy, and
up to 640x560 graphics.
Toshiba introduces the Tosbac UX-300.
It features a Toshiba 88000 processor,
512KB RAM, 1MB 8-inch floppy drive, 10MB hard drive, and runs Unix, for
NEC introduces the Advanced Personal Computer
(N5200 in Japan). It features a 5-MHz NEC
PD8086 microprocessor, single or dual 1.2MB 8-inch disk drives, 128KB RAM,
monochrome or color 12-inch monitor, 80x25 text, 640x475 graphics, and
supports CP/M-86 or MS-DOS.
NEC introduces the NEC
PC-9800. It features an Intel 8086 microprocessor,
128KB RAM, 96KB ROM with NBASIC-86, 640x400 graphics, various floppy drives,
and MS-DOS or CP/M-86.
Hitachi introduces the BASIC Master
16000 microcomputer. It features an Intel
8088 microprocessor, MS-DOS, 320KB RAM, 640x400 graphics, and two 320KB
5.25-inch floppy drives.
Hitachi introduces the PT-1 Personal
Terminal. It features MS-DOS, 720x520 graphics, and two 1MB 8-inch floppy
Sanyo introduces the MBC-55 microcomputer. It features an Intel
8088 microprocessor, 160KB 5.25-inch floppy drive, 64KB RAM, optional Intel
8087 math coprocessor, and choice of CP/M-86, Concurrent CP/M-86, or MS-DOS.
Sord introduces the M-343 microcomputer. It features an Intel
8086 microprocessor, Intel 8087 math
coprocessor, Zilog Z80A microprocessor, 640x400 graphics, dual floppy drives,
and support of various operating systems.
Anritsu introduces the Anritsu Packet II microcomputer. It features a Motorola
68000 microprocessor, two 150KB 5.25-inch floppy drives, and 256KB RAM.
Matsushita introduces the National JR-200 personal computer. It features
a 6802 microprocessor, 16KB ROM, and 32KB RAM. [447.124]
Matsushita introduces the National JR-100 personal computer. It features
a 6802 microprocessor, 8KB ROM, and 16KB RAM. [447.124]
Matsushita introduces the Tomy 16-bit Graphics Computer. It features a
TMS 9995 microprocessor. [447.124]
Sord introduces the M5 microcomputer. It features a Zilog Z80A microprocessor,
8KB ROM, 4KB RAM, and 16KB graphics RAM. [447.124]
Sanyo introduces the PHC-25 microcomputer. It features 24KB ROM with BASIC,
and 22KB RAM. [447.124]
AI Electronics introduces the AI-M16 microcomputer. It features an Intel
8086 microprocessor, Intel 8089 I/O
processor, optional Intel 8087 math
coprocessor, 256KB RAM, and support for various operating systems.
Corvus Systems introduces the Corvus Concept microcomputer. It uses aMotorola
68000 processor, 256KB RAM, 120x66 character (560x720 graphics) B/W display,
Seiko introduces the 9500 Super Personal Computer. It features an Intel
8086 microprocessor, Intel 8087 math
coprocessor, two Intel 8088 microprocessors
for I/O and communications control, 256KB RAM, RMX/86 operating system,
and 512x480 color graphics.
Seiko introduces the 8600, using an Intel
Sharp introduces the Sharp X1 microcomputer. It features a Zilog Z80A microprocessor,
64KB RAM, 4KB video RAM, cassette-tape recorder, printer interface, dual
joystick interface, sound synthesizer, 80x25 text, and dual 5.25-inch floppy
Sony introduces the SMC-70 microcomputer. It features a Zilog Z80A microprocessor,
two 3.5-inch drives, and optional Intel 8086 microprocessor add-on unit.
Aval introduces the AVC-777J2 portable microcomputer. It features a Zilog
Z80A microprocessor, 64KB RAM, 16KB video RAM, CP/M 2.2, 5-inch monochrome
monitor, two 600KB 5.25-inch floppy drives, 5-inch thermal printer, and
parallel/serial ports. It weighs 27.5 pounds. [447.122]
Aval introduces the AVC-666 microcomputer. It is like the AVC-777J2, but
without a monitor and printer. [447.122]
Sord introduces the M23P portable microcomputer. It features a Zilog Z80A
microprocessor, 128KB RAM, 80x8 LCD display, dual 290KB 3.5-inch disk drives,
and weighs 19.8 pounds. [447.12]]
Milton Bradley buys General Consumer Electronics. [340.10]
Mattel introduces the Intellivision II. 
An insurance company contracts with programmer Wilton Jones to create a
PC word processing program that mimicks Wang word processing. That program
becomes MultiMate. 
Astrovision renames the Bally Computer System as the Astrocade. 
Victor Business Products releases the Victor 9000 microcomputer. It features
128KB RAM, two 612KB disk drives, two serial ports, two parallel ports,
800x400 green high resolution video, speaker/amplifier, sound digitizer,
5-MHz 8088 processor, CP/M-86 or MS-DOS, for US$5000. [445.216]
Vector Graphic introduces the Vector 4 system, leaving them with US$3 million
in stock of the Vector 3 system. [202.213]
Franklin Computer Corp. unveils the Franklin Ace 1000, the first legal
(at the time) Apple II clone. It uses a 1.022 MHz 6502 CPU, and comes with
64KB RAM.  [291.10]
Andrew Fluegelman begins distributing his PC-Talk communications software,
the first copyrighted program distributed as shareware. [315.32]
General Videotex Corporation begins the Delphi online service. 
Robert Lissner begins work on Apple Pie, which would be marketed by Apple
Computer as AppleWorks for the Apple II.
Businessland opens. 
Jack Tramiel resigns from Commodore Business Machines, but later takes
his position back. [349.30]
At the West Coast Computer Faire, Davong Systems introduces its 5MB Winchester
Disk Drive for the IBM PC, for US$2000.
John Warnock founds Adobe Systems. [346.146]
In the first 8 months since its introduction, 11,000 Osborne 1 computers
Personal Software changes its name to VisiCorp. [346.280]
Mouse Systems introduces the first commercial mouse for the IBM
Sanyo introduces the PHC-8000 hand-held computer. It features a NSC-800
CMOS microprocessor, 24KB ROM, 4KB RAM, one-line LCD screen, optional I/O
unit PHC-8010 allows connection to video monitor and microcassette recorder
and adds 14KB ROM and 22KB RAM. [447.125]
Toshiba introduces the Pasopia Mini.
It features an 8-bit CMOS microprocessor, 4KB RAM, 20KB ROM including 16KB
BASIC, and a one-line LCD screen.
NEC introduces the PC-2001 Hand-Held Computer. It features an 8-bit 4-MHz
CMOS uPD7907 microprocessor, 36KB ROM, 16KB RAM, serial port, and 40x2
character LCD screen. [447.125]
The Winter Consumer Electronics Show is held, in Las Vegas, Nevada. [300.18]
Texas Instruments introduces the TI 99/2, using the TI-9995 16-bit microprocessor,
4.2KB RAM, 24KB ROM, 16-color graphics. Price is US$100. [300.39] [444.496]
Spectra Video introduces the SV318 microcomputer. It features 32KB RAM
and 32KB ROM, for US$300. [444.496]
Extex introduces the 2000 Piggyback Computer, a keyboard add-on for the
Atari 2600, with 8KB BASIC and 3KB RAM, for US$100. [444.496]
Timex announces the Timex/Sinclair 2000, which is the repackaged Sinclair
Apple Computer officially unveils the
Lisa computer. It features a 5-MHz 68000 microprocessor, 1MB RAM, 2MB ROM,
a 12-inch B/W monitor, 720x364 graphics, dual 5.25-inch 860KB floppy drives,
and a 5MB Profile hard drive. It is slow, but innovative. Its initial price
is US$10,000. The Lisa is based on the Xerox
Star System, and cost Apple Computer
US$50 million to develop. It is the first personal computer with a graphical
user interface (GUI). The software for it cost Apple
Computer US$100 million to develop. "Lisa" stands for Local Integrated
Mattel shows the Intellivision III at the Consumer Electronics Show. 
Apple Computer introduces the Apple
IIe. It features 64KB RAM, Applesoft BASIC, upper/lower case keyboard,
seven expansion slots, 40x24 and 80x24 text, 1-MHz 6502 processor, up to
560x192 graphics, 140KB 5.25-inch floppy drive, Apple DOS 3.3, for US$1400.
Apple Computer releases the Apple Letter
Quality Printer, for US$2200. It is a modified Qume printer.
VisiCorp (formerly Personal Software) sues Software Arts over rights to
Mattel Electronics demonstrates the Aquarius computer at the Winter CES.
It has 4KB RAM, and a Z80A microprocessor. It is expected to sell for US$200.
[176.145] [300.40] [444.492]
Timex introduces the Timex 2000, which is their re-packaged Sinclair Spectrum
for the North American market. Price is US$149 for a 16KB model. [300.42]
Atari introduces the 1200XL home computer, with 64KB RAM, and 256 color
capability. Price: US$900. [300.46]
A full-page ad by Media Distributing offers a 44MB hard drive for US$4400;
22MB for US$3600; 11MB for US$2700.
Commodore's sales of VIC-20s reaches 1,000,000. 
Commodore introduces the SX-64, the first color portable computer. Weight
is 10.5 kg. It incorporates a 5-inch color monitor and one or two 5.25
inch floppy drive. Price is US$1600. [190.81] [349.16] [444.496]
Time magazine selects the microcomputer as its "Man" of the Year.  ("Machine
of the Year" [346.264]) (1982 DEC )
Lotus Development ships Lotus 1-2-3
Release 1.0 for MS-DOS. US$1 million was spent on promoting the release.
Microsoft establishes a sibsidiary
company in West Germany.
Radio Shack announces its TRS-80 Model 100 portable Computer. It uses an
80c85 processor, and is based on the NEC PC-8201, which is built by Kyoto
Ceramics (Kyocera). It features 40x8 text, 240x64 graphics, and runs on
four AA alkaline batteries, powering it for about 20 hours. Price is US$800
for 8KB version, or US$1000 for the 24KB version.  [346.264] [529.14]
(introduced in 1984 [202.199])
IBM announces the IBM
PC XT. It adds a 10 MB hard drive, three more expansion slots, and a serial
interface. With 128KB RAM and a 360KB floppy drive, it costs US$5000.
MS-DOS 2.0 for PCs is announced. It was written from scratch, supporting
10 MB hard drives, a tree-structured file system, and 360 KB floppy disks.
   [346.264]
The National Computer Conference is held in Anaheim, California. [529.188]
Fujitsu shows off first production of 256Kbit memory chips. [529.189]
Sony Electronics announces the 3.5
inch floppy disk and drive, double-sided, double-density, holding up to
Microsoft France opens its first office, in Paris, France. [346.117]
Sord introduces the M5 Fun Computer, and the M5 MultiComputer. Both Both
feature a Zilog Z80 microprocessor, 8KB ROM, 4KB RAM, keyboard, serial/parallel/cassette
ports, and two game controllers, for US$200. [529.190]
Sord announces the M23 computer, featuring a Z80 processor, 128KB RAM,
two disk drives, 640x256 8-color graphics, for US$2200. [529.190]
Toshiba announces a portable version
of the T100 computer, with 64KB RAM, 40x8 LCD screen, modem, and briefcase,
Toshiba announces the T300 computer,
featuring a 16-bit processor, 650x500 8-color graphics, 192KB RAM, 640KB
floppy disk drives, seven expansion slots, and IBM PC software compatibility,
Sharp introduces the PC-5000 computer, featuring a 16-bit Intel 8088 processor,
128KB RAM, 80x8 LCD, 640x80 graphics, and weighing 11 pounds. [529.190]
Commodore ships the Commodore Executive 64. It features 64KB RAM, detachable
keyboard, 5-inch color monitor, 170KB floppy drive, for US$1000. [529.192]
Anderson Jacobson introduces the AJ Passport portable computer, with 256KB
RAM, one or two floppy drives, serial/parallel ports, 300-baud modem, 640x250
graphics, and 7-inch amber display. [529.192]
Computer Devices shows the Dot computer, with 16-bit Intel 8088 processor,
128KB RAM, Sony 3.5-inch floppy drive, integrated 9-inch green or amber
monitor, 1056x254 graphics, and two serial ports, for US$3000. [529.192]
NCR introduces the Decision Mate V computers, with Zilog Z80 processor,
optional Intel 8088 processor, and monochrome or color display, for US$2650-3440.
Honeywell introduces the microSystem 6/10 microcomputer. It is compatible
with Honeywell's DPS 6 mainframe family. It ises LSI 6 and Intel 8086 processors,
128KB RAM, dual 5.25-inch drives, display, keyboard, and I/O ports for
Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Model 4, with 4-MHz Zilog Z80A microprocessor,
16KB RAM, cassette or 180KB 5.25-inch floppy drives, keyboard, 80x24 text
12-inch B/W monitor, optional CP/M, speaker, for US$2000. [368.148] [461.292]
Microsoft introduces its first mouse,
"The Microsoft Mouse", including
card and software, for US$200.
Gavilan introduces the Gavilan Mobile Computer, a full-function portable
computer. It features a 16-bit Intel 8088, 80KB RAM, 3-inch microfloppy
drive, 66x8 LCD screen, touch pad, keyboard, 300-baud modem, and I/O ports.
Microsoft quote: "We have a long-term
relationship with IBM and have solid plans
The one millionth Apple II is made.   [346.264] 
Intel quote: "Accessing memory using
a segmented architecture holds many advantages over the earlier linear-addressing
Mattel announces the scrapping of plans for the Intellivision III. 
Mattel announces the Entertainment Computer System. 
The Summer Consumer Electronics Show is held, in Chicago, Illinois. [530.200]
Coleco announces the Coleco Adam, at the Summer CES. The Adam is a Z80-based
computer with 80-column SmartWriter daisy wheel printer, two game controllers,
80KB RAM (64KB user RAM, 16KB video RAM), 3 sound channels, 16 color graphics,
compatibility with ColecoVision games, 4 MC6801 microprocessors controlling
operation of peripherals, full keyboard, and 512KB tape-cartridge device,
for US$600.  [336.4] [364.43] [202.210] [363.54] [364.43] [530.200]
Spectra Video shows the SV-328 at the Summer CES. It is like the SV-318,
but with a full-stroke keyboard, cursor keys, and 32KB RAM. [530.202]
Atari shows The Graduate at the Summer CES. It is an add on computer for
the Atari 2600 VCS game unit. It features 8KB RAM, keyboard, 16KB ROM with
BASIC, and various I/O interfaces. [530.202]
Rabbit Computer shows the Rabbit RX83 at the Summer CES. It features a
Z80A processor, 2KB RAM, keyboard, and 256x192 resolution 8-color graphics.
Tomy shows the Tomy Tutor microcomputer at the Summer CES. It features
16-color 256x192 graphics, 32x24 text, 16KB RAM, 32KB ROM, three sound
channels, for US$150. [530.202]
Video Technology shows a prototype Laser 2001, compatible with ColecoVision
and Atari VCS cartridges. It features 16KB ROM, 64KB RAM, 256x192 graphics,
four channel sound, and I/O interfaces. [530.202]
Video Technology shows the Laser 3000, an Apple II workalike microcomputer.
It features 24KB ROM, 64KB RAM, 81-key keyboard, 80-column text display,
560x192 graphics, four sound channels, and I/O interfaces. [530.202]
Unitronics shows the Sonic, an Apple II workalike microcomputer. It uses
a TI video display processor chip, 48KB RAM, and built-in wafertape drive.
Taiwan Happy Home Computer Company shows the Multi-System microcomputer,
compatible with both the Apple II and the IBM PC. [530.204]
NEC shows the PC-8201 portable computer for the first time in the US. [530.204]
Casio shows the FP-200 portable, with 20x8 LCD display, 8KB RAM, and I/O
IBM announces the IBM
3270 PC, an 8088-based system, for US$4290.
IBM announces the IBM
PC-XT Model 370, with 8088 CPU, 768K RAM, 360K drive, and 10 MB hard drive
Quote from Spinnaker Software chairman William Bowman: "We're just sitting
here trying to put our PCjrs in a pile and burn them. And the damn things
won't burn. That's the only thing IBM did right with it - they made it
Tandy/Radio Shack announces the "transportable" TRS-80 Model 4P, for US$1800.
It features a 4-MHz Zilog Z80A CPU, 64KB RAM, two 5.25-inch floppy drives,
and 9-inch B/W screen. [326.67] [368.148]
The CP/M '83 Show is held in San Francisco, California. [529.196]
Radio Shack unveils the TRS-80 Model 12 at the CP/M '83 Show. It features
a Zilog Z80A processor, 80KB RAM, 82-key keyboard, 1.25MB floppy drive,
and software compatibility with the TRS-80 Model II. Price is US$3200.
Frankline shows an operating Franklin Ace 1200 Apple II compatible at the
CP/M '83 Show. It features an 8-bit processor, 128KB RAM, color display,
upper/lower-case keyboard, 143KB floppy drive, CP/M card, 80-column text
card, for US$2200. [529.196]
Digital Research introduces enhanced CP/M-86 for the IBM PC. It includes
a printer spooler, and improved graphics. [529.198]
Mattel introduces the Aquarius computer, with 4KB RAM, 8KB ROM, Z80A processor,
40x24 text output to a TV, 80x72 block graphics, in 16 colors. Price is
Texas Instruments introduces the Compact
Computer 40 (CC-40). It uses the 8-bit TMS 70C20 processor, 6KB RAM, 34KB
ROM with BASIC, and 31x1 LCD display. It rnus on four AA batteries, lasting
up to 200 hours.
Microsoft shows IBM
a raw version of Windows. IBM is not interested
as they are already developing what would be called TopView.
Wang announces the single in-line memory module (SIMM). b[461.8]
Hewlett-Packard unveils the HP 150 microcomputer. It features an 9-MHz
Intel 8088 microprocessor, dual 3.5-inch disk drives, 9-inch green HPTouch
optical touchscreen, 256KB RAM, and 512x390 graphics. Code-name during
development was Magic. [461.36]
Philips and Sony develop the CD-ROM, as an extension of audio CD technology.
Bjarn Stroustrup creates the C++ extension to the C programming language.
Morrow Designs introduces the Morrow Micro Decision microcomputer. It features
a 4-MHz Zilog Z80A microprocessor, 64KB RAM, two serial ports, 200KB 5.25-inch
floppy drive, CP/M v2.2, and separate video terminal. [461.306]
Microsoft, SpectraVideo, and 14 Japanese computer companies announce the
MSX specifications for low-end, 8-bit home computers systems. [530.24]
STM Electronics introduces the Pied Piper Communicator 1 portable computer.
It features a Zilog Z80 processor, 64KB RAM, 5.25-inch disk drive, six
software packages, and 80x24 text on monitor or TV, for US$1300. [530.30]